Invasive ventilation (IV)
Invasive mechanical ventilation can become a lifesaving intervention for your patients with respiratory and breathing difficulties. The term “invasive” is used if it involves any instrument penetrating via the mouth (such as an endotracheal tube), nose, or the skin (such as a tracheostomy tube through a stoma, a surgically-created hole in the windpipe) to serve as an artificial airway.1
The objectives of mechanical ventilation are primarily to provide oxygen, remove carbon dioxide, decrease the work of breathing and reverse life-threatening conditions such as hypoxemia, or insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood, and acute progressive respiratory acidosis, or build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood.1
There are two tubes used for invasive mechanical ventilation:
- Standard endotracheal tube (ET) – inserted via the nose or mouth, the standard ET provides a secure airway when the balloon on the cuff is inflated and sealed, and is mostly used in adult patients with acute respiratory failure; pediatric patients can benefit from uncuffed ET.2
- Tracheostomy tube –inserted via a stoma, a surgically-created opening in the trachea, the tracheostomy tube is used for patients who need long-term mechanical ventilation, and exists with cuffed and uncuffed options; cuffed tracheostomy tubes seals the airway to control mechanical ventilation, while deflated cuffs or cuffless tubes may be introduced when the patient is more stable.
Invasive ventilation may be used during acute respiratory failure, weaning and for chronic respiratory failure when non-invasive ventilation is impossible to manage correctly. It can also be used as a means to maintain a patient’s airway during a surgical procedure, such as intubation done in the ICU.
Whether it is used in a hospital setting or at home (Home Mechanical Ventilation), invasive mechanical ventilation is paired with ventilation technology that continuously facilitates oxygen exchange/carbon dioxide exchange.3 At ResMed, we provide machines with several modes that use the latest technology for the most comfortable and effective therapy. Discover our range of ventilators for invasive mechanical ventilation.
Windisch, W. et al. Guidelines for Non-Invasive and Invasive Mechanical Ventilation for Treatment of Chronic Respiratory Failure. German Society for Pneumology (DGP): 640-652.