Glossary

Anti-asphyxia valve (AAV)

The anti-asphyxia valve (AAV) is a safety feature in all ResMed full face masks. If the therapy device stops delivering air for any reason (eg, in a power failure), the AAV allows you to breathe in fresh air from the room rather than re-breathe exhaled air built up in your mask.

Apnea–hypopnea index (AHI)

Measured during a sleep study, AHI refers to the number of apneas and hypopneas you have per hour.

See also: Apnea; Hypopnea

Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP)

While continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy delivers air at one fixed pressure, automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) is a type of therapy delivery that automatically changes throughout the night (based on your needs) to deliver only the lowest pressure you need at any given time. This means that the device only increases the pressure as you need it. ResMed’s APAP therapy is delivered in our AutoSet™ range of devices.

See also: CPAP; AutoSet

Apnea

"Apnea" means "no breath." An apnea happens when you stop breathing for 10 seconds or longer during sleep.

See also: Sleep apnea; OSA; CSA; Mixed apnea

Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV)

Adaptive servo-ventilation is a type of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy that treats a range of central breathing disorders, including periodic breathing, such as Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR).

Central breathing disorders occur when your body’s automatic act of breathing has stopped even though your airway is open.

See also: Apnea; CSA; Periodic breathing; Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR)

AutoSet™

AutoSet is the name of ResMed’s APAP technology, which adjusts the therapy pressure delivered to you as your needs change—hourly, nightly and from season to season—to deliver the ideal, lowest therapy pressure.

As a result, AutoSet is clinically proven to increase comfort and compliance.1-3

See also: APAP

  • 01

    Teschler et al. Eur Respir J 2000

  • 02

    Hukins. Sleep 2004

  • 03

    Massie et al. Comparison between automatic and fixed positive airway pressure therapy in the home. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003 167:20-23

Bilevel therapy

While CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) therapy delivers air at one fixed pressure, bilevel therapy, or variable positive airway pressure (VPAP) therapy, delivers two different levels of pressure:
 

  • a higher level of pressure when you breathe in; and

  • a lower level of pressure when you breathe out.
     

This makes it a little more comfortable to breathe out against the air pressure.

ResMed’s bilevel therapy is delivered in our VPAP™ range of devices.

See also: VPAP; CPAP

Body mass index (BMI)

Using your height and weight, your body mass index (BMI) is calculated to assess if you are at your ideal weight, overweight or underweight.

Chest wall disorder

A chest wall disorder is one that affects the connection between the muscles and bones around the rib cage and the respiratory system (that is, the organs in your body that help you to breathe).

Climate Control

This is the name of ResMed’s humidification technology.

Climate Control is a comfortable humidification system that delivers rainout protection without compromising on humidity delivery.

By using a ClimateLine™ heated tube with your Climate Control system, you can also keep the air in the tube warm throughout the night. Humidity and temperature are maintained, even as ambient conditions change.

To activate Climate Control you need an S9™  therapy device, an H5i™ heated humidifier and a ClimateLine heated tube.

See also: Humidification; Rainout

CO2 wash-out

During normal breathing, you breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide (CO2). When you are wearing a therapy mask, some of the CO2 can remain in the mask, so all masks must have a way to wash out CO2 remaining in the mask to prevent you from re-breathing too much of it.

Complex sleep apnea (CompSA)

Complex sleep apnea (CompSA) is a form of sleep apnea where central apneas persist (or emerge) during attempts to treat obstructive apneas with CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) or bilevel therapy.

See also: Apnea; OSA; CPAP; Bilevel

Conducted noise

Refers to noise that is created from therapy equipment – it’s the noise you might hear and feel in the tube.

See also: Radiated noise

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease that develops over time, mainly caused by cigarette smoking, air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust.

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of therapy that delivers pressurized air at one fixed pressure throughout the night to keep your airway open so that you don’t stop breathing in your sleep (that is, have an "apnea").

CPAP is suitable for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

See also: Apnea; Sleep apnea; OSA; APAP; VPAP

Central sleep apnea (CSA)

While some apneas are caused by a blockage (or obstruction) in your upper airway, central sleep apnea (CSA) is when your breathing stops but your airway is actually open (not blocked).

Even though the airway may be open, the automatic action of breathing stops because the communication between the brain and the body has been lost.

See also: Apnea; OSA

Compliance

This is a term used to describe how well you are following the recommended usage of your therapy. If you are compliant, it means you are using it as recommended to gain the benefits of treatment. If you are noncompliant, you are not using it as recommended to gain the benefits.

Compliance is also sometimes linked to health insurance reimbursement.

Easy-Breathe technology

This is the name of ResMed’s smooth air delivery technology, which intelligently mimics your natural breathing pattern. It incorporates the Easy-Breathe motor, which reduces the sound of your device to a whisper, so your (and your partner’s) sleeping environment is quiet and restful.

Easy-Breathe technology is available in ResMed's S9™ therapy devices.

Expiratory pressure relief (EPR™)

Expiratory pressure relief (EPR™) is a feature on ResMed’s sleep therapy devices that gently lowers the pressure delivered to you when you breathe out. This makes it more comfortable to breathe out against the air pressure.

Event

When an apnea or hypopnea happens, it is called an "event."

Expiration

Refers to breathing out, either naturally (automatically) or mechanically (with the help of a therapy device or ventilator). Also referred to as exhalation.

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a condition where you constantly feel tired during the day, and generally lack energy, even though you might feel you have had enough sleep.

Flow

Flow refers to the stream of air entering your lungs when you breathe (either naturally or with the help of a therapy device).

Flow limitation

This refers to any event that limits the flow of air into your body, due to a blockage (or obstruction) in your upper airway.

Full face masks

Full face masks are a type of mask used during positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. Full face masks cover both the nose and mouth.  

See also: Nasal pillow masks; Nasal masks

Humidification/Humidifier

During positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, humidification warms the air you’re breathing as it comes out of the device. This helps you avoid getting a dry nose or throat, keeps your airway moist (so that it doesn’t dry out), and helps you keep your mouth closed while you sleep.

Using a humidifier can make a positive difference to your therapy comfort and experience.

ResMed’s humidification technology is called Climate Control.

See also: Climate Control

Hypopnea

Hypopnea is a partial blockage of the airway (shallow breathing). During a hypopnea, breathing is reduced by 50% for 10 seconds or longer.

Inspiration

Refers to breathing in, either spontaneously (automatically) or mechanically (with the help of a therapy device or ventilator). Also referred to as inspiration.

Inspiration pressure

Refers to the pressure delivered to you during inspiration.

See also: Inspiration; Pressure

Inspiration time (Ti)

Refers to the length of time (in seconds) you spend in inspiration (ie, how long it takes for air to flow into the lungs).

See also: TiControl

Intubation

Refers to where a tube is inserted down your throat to provide you with oxygen.

See also: Invasive ventilation

Invasive ventilation/invasive therapy

Refers to a method of ventilation that requires something to enter your body to help you breathe. This can be via intubation (where a tube is inserted down your throat), or a tracheotomy (where an incision is made into your throat).

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV), on the other hand, does not require anything to enter your body to provide air. Instead, air is delivered through a mask that you wear over your mouth and/or nose.

See also: Tracheotomy; Intubation; NIV

intelligent Volume-Assured Pressure Support (iVAPS)

iVAPS is a volume assurance therapy mode found in some of ResMed’s ventilators. To ensure you receive the right volume of air needed for your therapy, iVAPS intelligently monitors whether air is flowing in or out of your lungs, the amount of air that’s flowing through and how much air you need for the next breath.

See also: Volume

Latex-free

All ResMed masks are latex-free.

Leak

Leak refers to air escaping (or leaking out of) your mask. Leak can result from your mask being put together wrong, fitted incorrectly, or when the mask is worn out and needs to be replaced.

Lower airway

The respiratory system is made up of all the organs in your body that help you breathe.

The windpipe and lungs make up the lower airway. The lower airway is protected by the chest cavity, which also contains the heart.

See also: Upper airway; Respiratory system

Mask leak

See Leak.

Minute ventilation

Refers to the volume of air breathed in (or out) within any 60-second period.

Mouth leak

Refers to air escaping (or leaking out of) your mouth during positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. This happens when you breathe through your mouth rather than your nose, and your mouth is not covered by a therapy mask.

Mixed apnea

This is a mixture of both obstructive sleep apnea, where there is a blockage (or obstruction) in the upper airway; and central sleep apnea, where no effort is made to breathe.

See also: CSA; OSA; Lower airway

Nasal masks

Nasal masks are a type of therapy masks used during positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. Nasal masks cover only the nose.

See also: Nasal pillow masks; Full face masks

Nasal pillow masks

Nasal pillow masks are a type of mask used during positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. The nasal pillows rest at the entrance to the nose, gently sealing in the nostrils. These masks are minimalistic and less obtrusive than nasal or full face masks.

See also: Nasal masks; Full face masks

Neuromuscular disease (NMD)

Refers to a range of diseases and conditions that affect your muscles. This can be due to the nature of the muscles themselves or the nerves in the muscles.

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV)

Noninvasive ventilation is a way to deliver air to your system in an effort to help you breathe without drugs, intubation or surgery. In NIV, pressurized air is delivered from a small device that sits on your bedside table, to a mask that you wear over your face.  

See also: Invasive ventilation

Non-REM sleep

The sleep cycle is made up of two recurring sleep states: REM (rapid eye movement) and NREM (non-rapid eye movement). Both phases are important for different functions within our body.

See also: REM

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). OSA is when an apnea or hypopnea occurs due to a complete or partial blockage in the upper airway

See also: Apnea; SDB; Upper airway; Hypopnea

Oximeter

An oximeter is a small sensor that clips onto your fingertip to calculate your pulse rate and oxygen saturation. It is usually used with a home sleep test (HST) device like ResMed’s ApneaLink™ Plus.

See also: Pulse rate; Oxygen saturation

Oxygen therapy

A therapy consisting of oxygen delivered to your airway via a tube to help you breathe.

Periodic breathing

Periodic breathing describes an unstable breathing pattern during sleep.

In periodic breathing, you will have periods during your breathing cycle where breathing is deep and then shallow, which can lead to having a central apnea (where you stop breathing for more than 10 seconds) even though your airway is not blocked.

See also: Apnea; CSA

Pressure

Therapy devices measure the force of air delivered to you in units of pressure (ie, centimeters of water, or cm H2O). For example, if your care provider prescribes a therapy pressure of 25 cm H2O, then that’s the force of air needed to keep your airway open to minimize or avoid apneas.

See also: Therapy pressure

Pressure port

Parts in the mask where oxygen tubes and/or pressure lines can be directly connected, so that oxygen and pressure can be monitored.

Pulse rate

Refers to the number of heart beats in a 60-second time frame. Your pulse rate can be measured by an oximeter.

See also: Oximeter

Polysomnography (PSG)

This is a test used to monitor sleep. The reading from a PSG can be used to assess the quality of your sleep and the likelihood of having a sleep disorder.

Radiated noise

Refers to the sound made by therapy equipment—it’s the sound you hear in the room.

See also: Conducted noise

Rainout

Rainout refers to water droplets or moisture in your tubing or mask. If your bedroom gets too cold at night, the amount of water vapor that can be held by the air decreases, causing condensation—or rainout—in the tube. This can create issues during positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy.

Using a humidification solution like ResMed’s Climate Control can help minimize rainout.

See also: Humidification; Climate Control

Ramp

Designed to make therapy more comfortable, Ramp helps you ease into therapy each night. With Ramp, your device is set to start at a lower pressure than prescribed and slowly increases pressure by small degrees until it reaches your prescribed pressure by a maximum of 45 minutes. This gives you time to fall asleep or get used to breathing with your equipment on before your pressure reaches the prescribed setting.

See also: Therapy pressure

REM sleep

The sleep cycle is made up of two recurring sleep states: REM (rapid eye movement) and NREM (non-rapid eye movement). Both phases are important for different functions within our body.

See also: Non-REM

Respiratory system

The respiratory system is made up of all the organs in your body that help you breathe. It is made up of the upper and lower airways.

See also: Upper airway; Lower airway

Respiratory rate

Refers to the frequency of breathing, measured as the number of breaths per minute.

ResScan™

ResScan™ is the name of ResMed’s PC-based data management software. It’s the software that care providers, healthcare professionals and equipment suppliers might use to download your therapy information to assess your therapy progress.

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB)

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is an umbrella term used to describe a group of conditions where a person has trouble breathing or stops breathing while they’re asleep. Also referred to generally as “sleep apnea.”

See also: Sleep apnea

 

Seal

Your mask needs to seal well on your face for you to get the full benefit of therapy. A good seal means that the air pressure being delivered to you is distributed evenly and comfortably and is not leaking out from your mask. You will know it’s a good seal because your mask will feel firm but not tight on your face and around the headgear. If you hear or feel any air escaping from your mask (ie, "leaking") your mask is not sealing well. (Check that you have the right mask type for your face, the right mask size, and that your mask is put together and fitted correctly.)

Settling time/Ramp

See Ramp.

Sleep apnea

This is the general name given to a group of conditions where you stop breathing while you’re asleep. Sleep apnea is also sometimes called sleep-disordered breathing (SDB).
See also: SDB

Snore index

A snore index is recorded and reported during a sleep study. It’s based on the strength of the pressure waves that your snoring makes during the study.

Therapy pressure

Your therapy pressure is prescribed by your care provider or sleep physician. It is measured in centimeters of water (or H2O). The setting prescribed determines the force of air being delivered to you through your therapy device. For example, if your care provider prescribes a therapy pressure of 25 cm H2O, then that’s the force of air needed to keep your airway open to minimize or avoid apneas.

See also: Pressure

TiControl

This is the name of a unique feature of ResMed’s VPAP™ bilevel devices. TiControl™ allows your care provider to set minimum and maximum inspiratory time limits to accommodate your individual respiratory needs.

See also: Inspiration time (Ti)

Tidal volume

Refers to the volume of air that you breathe in and out in one breath, when you are in a resting (not active) state.

Tracheotomy

A tracheotomy is a surgical procedure in which an incision (cut) is made into your throat to make way for a tube to be placed into your throat to deliver air directly into your airway.

See also: Invasive ventilation

Usage

Usage is the length of time recorded on your device that shows how long you have used and received therapy from your device. This can be used when assessing your compliance with therapy.

See also: Compliance

Ventilation

Refers to the process of getting air into and out of the lungs. This is done either spontaneously, that is, through the automatic action of breathing, or mechanically, with the help of a ventilator. Using a ventilator, air enters your lungs—either nonnvasively (via a mask worn over your mouth and/or nose) or invasively (via a tracheotomy)—before being expelled (or gotten rid of).
See also: Invasive ventilation; NIV; Tracheotomy

Variable positive airway pressure (VPAP™)

Variable positive airway pressure (VPAP™) is the name of ResMed’s bilevel technology, which delivers therapy pressures at two different levels.

See also: Bilevel; Therapy pressure

Volume

Volume refers to the amount of air delivered to you in units of millilitres (mL) or liters (L).